Special Education Background Information

Special Education Background Information

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), children with eligible disabilities are entitled to a “free appropriate public education” (FAPE). FAPE is provided through an Individualized Education Program (IEP).

An IEP team determines whether a child qualifies to receive special education services and what the IEP should entail. Parents are critical members of this team. In theory, the team is to collectively determine the contents of the IEP. An IEP cannot be implemented without parental consent.

Understandably, the team occasionally disagrees about specific content in the IEP. This disagreement is generally between the parents, and the district IEP members. When a stalemate occurs, and there is no chance of a consensus, it may be necessary to file a due process complaint. This leads to a due process hearing.


Essentially, a due process hearing is an impartial way to determine the identification, assessment, educational placement, and appropriate services and support that your child is entitled to under the law. It leads to a decision by an administrative judge.

Parents can think of a due process complaint like a filing a lawsuit – but if you “win” at the hearing, your award is an IEP that is designed to what you considered as “appropriate”, as well as “compensatory education” (services your child should have received, but for the district’s violations).

Instead of filing a complaint through the “regular” court system, it is filed through OAH (Office of Administrative Hearings). OAH is an independent state agency that handles special education disputes. Instead of a “trial”, due process complaints are handled through a “hearing”. Hearings are similar to trials, but are not held in a courtroom, and are slightly more informal.

Once you file a complaint, the “lawsuit” begins. Before the hearing, there are three primary events:

First, there is an early resolution session. This is an informal meeting between the two parties (parents and school district) without legal representation. The hope is that the parties come to a mutual agreement at this resolution session. Our attorneys will help parents prepare for this meeting, and will be available throughout the session for consultation (via telephone).

Second, there is a mediation. This is a more formal attempt to resolve your complaint without going to a hearing. The parties, their attorneys, and an administrative judge from OAH will attend. It is generally held at the school district’s office. It is scheduled for the entire day, although it does not take the entire day in some cases. It is considered confidential settlement negotiations, meaning, anything said during the mediation cannot be used as evidence in the hearing. The judge presiding over the mediation is automatically prohibited from hearing the case, to ensure that confidential settlement communication is not brought into the hearing.

Third, there is a pre-hearing conference (PHC). This is a teleconference between the judge, who will be presiding over the hearing, and the attorneys. The purpose of the PHC is to identify the specific issues (allegations) that will be determined at the hearing, the proposed resolutions, witness lists, evidentiary issues, any pre-hearing motions, and any and all other practical matters for the hearing.

Lastly, if all else fails, a hearing is held. It is a “trial”, wherein the parties are allowed to present witnesses, evidence and arguments. The presiding judge makes a final, written decision.